Infectious diseases and vaccinations


• Virus, viral encephalitis and deadly.
• The virus may exist in the saliva from 8 days to a few hours before clinical signs appear.
• Incubation: 1 week to 8 months
• 2 forms exist: the furious form (enraged dog, behavior problems, aggression) that will result in death between 2 to 3 days after the appearance of clinical signs and the paralytic form (paralysis of the jaw muscles, the animal is unable to swallow) which results in death 2 to 3 days after the appearance of symptoms.
• The virus is on the rise in Quebec.
• Rabies is transmitted through an animal’s bite.
• There is a presence of the disease throughout the world with the exception of England, New Zealand, Hawaii, Japan and Scandinavia.
• Vaccination can begin at 3 to 4 months of age and is repeated every year or every three years depending on the vaccine’s protocol.
• The vaccination exists for humans.
• If you are bitten by an animal, always wash the wound thoroughly with soap.
• This is a zoonotic disease.


• Severe hemorrhagic gastro-enteritis.
• Incubation lasts 3 to 5 days.
• Clinical signs include; diarrhea, vomiting, anorexia, dehydration and fever.
• This virus is very resistant in the environement.
• A contaminated animal sheds the virus through its feces for a period of 2 weeks. So, the feces is contagious.
• Certain breeds are predisposed to the disease such as the Rottweiler, Doberman, pitt-bull, Labrador and the English springer spaniel.
• The vaccine is given between 6 and 8 weeks of age, the repeated once a month until the age of 16 weeks, then once every year.
• The only treatment is to provide medical support to the animal while fighting the disease.
• Once the animal has recovered, he must be kept isolated for a one month period.
• Reproductive females should be vaccinated two weeks before breeding.


• The bacterial disease is contracted when the animal has been sprayed by a shunk or drinks contaminated water. This potentially deadly disease attacks the kidneys.
• The incubation period is between 5 and 6 days.
• Clinical signs are; hemorrhagic gastro-enteritis, icterohemorrhagic form, leptospirosic nephritis or active chronic hepatitis.
• Treatment is determined by the symptoms and in which we would supplement with antibiotic therapy.
• An animal may be contaminated by contact with urine, blood, a cadaver, or contaminated water.
• Hunting dogs are particulary at risk.
• Vaccination begins at 3 months and 4 months of age, then once a year (every 6 months for dogs at high risk).
• This is a zoonotic disease.


• This is a deadly viral disease with symptoms similar to those of rabies, but only contagious to dogs.
• This virus is shed by its secretions and excretions. It is also air-born. The infected dog may continue excreting the virus up to 2 weeks after he’s recovered.
• Clinical signs of the disease are; anorexia, fever, depression, vomiting, diarrhea, vision problems, skin problems, neurological problems, respiratory problems and hypoplasia of enamel.
• Vaccination against this disease begins at 6 to 8 weeks of age, then once a month until 16 weeks of age.
• Treatment of this disease will depend of the clinical symptoms and will be complemented with habitual supportive therapy.
• Prognosis for this disease is guarded.

Adenovirus (rubarth hepatitis)

• This is a viral disease causing hepatisis.
• Incubation period is between 3 and 6 days.
• Clinical signs include; fever, gastro-enteritis, adenitis, tonsillitis, uveitis, oedematous conjunctivitis and blue keratitis.
• Recovery of this disease is 10 days.
• Vaccination begins at 8, 12 and 16 weeks. Booster shots continue once every year.

Canine infections tracheobronchitits (kennel cough)

• This is a viral and/or bacterial (adenovirus II, parainfluenza, herpes virus, reovirus) disease that affects the respiratory system.
• Contamination is air-borne and by oculo-nasal secretions.
• This disease is highly contagious and is deadly in 20% of cases.
• Incubation of this disease is between 5 and 7 days.
• It is treated with antibiotics, then with supportive therapy.
• There exist two types of vaccines against this disease; the intra-nasal vaccine which acts quickly (5 days) and the subcutaneous vaccine. We must administer 2 doses at a one month interval, then once every year (or every 6 months depending of the risks of infection the animal may encounter).

Lyme disease

• This is a bacterial disease that is transmitted by a tick (small acarien parasite), which must remain attached to its host for more than 48hours in order to transmit the bacteria. This disease can be effectively prevented by applying anti-tick products.
• Clinical signs of Lyme disease are as follows; limping, anorexia, weight loss, fever, lethargy, glumerulonephropathy and renal failure.
• Golden retrievers and Labradors are breeds known to be predisposed to this disease.
• We treat this disease with the help of antibiotics.
• We can also vaccinate against Lyme disease, two doses must be given at a one month interval and once a year there after.
• The tick must be identified by sending it to Quebec’s Public Health Laboratory.
• To remove the tick, you should consult a veterinarian because the tick’s head is often detached from its body when pulling it from the host, thus, causing an abces to form.
• Dogs and cats cannot transmit disease to a human, however if they are not treated against ticks, they can become a vectors amd contaminate their owners immediate environment with infected ticks.
• In humans, the clinical symptoms of the disease are; flu syndrome, in severe cases meningitis, myocardites and uveitis.