External parasites

The fleas' excrement make a red mark when wet and crushed. This is the blood digested by the flea.
  • Fleas are vectors for numerous parasites, viruses, and bateria
  • Niche: animal's fur during the adult stage and the envrionment when in larva form.
  • Hosts: Dogs, cats, humans, etc (not often species specific). 
  • Mode of infection: Contaminated area. 
  • Cycle: Fleas lay there eggs 36 hours after their first meal and the eggs fall into the environment. The larva develops in 3 to 4 days (it ill nourish itself with organic waste), passes two other stages and grows in six days, and then develops into a flea and stays in this state for 5 to 17 days. 
  • Clinical signs: Itching and dermatitis. 
  • Diagnosis: The diagnosis is established visually. We find waste excreted by the flea, which resemble small, black commas and turn red on white paper when crushed with water. 
  • Treatment: A flea infestation is treated with a monthly systemic product (6 month treatment). Ex:Revolution(R), Advantage. The environment must be cleaned, vaccumed, and vaccum bag thrown out immediately in order to prevent further contamination. We do not advise treating the environment differently, as certain products sold for this purpose can be toxic. 
  • Prevention: An flea infestation can be easily avoided. All it takes is applying a systemic product that is administered monthly, from may to november, for all pets having access outdoors. 


  • Hosts: Lice are species specific; generally, human lice will only affect humans, and so on and so forth for other species. 
  • Niche: It stays on the host's skin. 
  • Cycle: The female lays its eggs at the hair base, where they stay stuck together and have a white-yellowish color. 
  • Mode of infection: Direct contact. 
  • Clinical signs: There are very few symptoms, such as itching, self-mutilation, the animal is more nervous, the fur is dry and rough, dandruff, and dermatitis. 
  • Treatment: The pet needs to be washed and treated with Advantage(R)


  • Definition: Demodex is an ectoparasite. 
  • Niche: They reside in the hair follicles and make up the normal flora on the dog's skin. Certain breeds are predisposed, such as the Shar Pei, West Highland White Terrier, Scottish Terrier, Bulldog, Boston Terrier, Great Dane, Airedale Terrier, Afghan, and the Malamute. 
  • Hosts: They are found on dogs, bovines, ovines, equines, and humans. 
  • Transmission: Transmission is by direct conatct. 
  • Clinical signs: Demodex presents itself in two forms; the localised form demonstrates partial alopecia, erythema, some itching, a few lesions on the face around the eyes and the mouth, and on the front limbs. This type occurs in young dogs aged 6 months or less and spontaneously heals on its own. The second type is the generalized form; it is found in dogs aged between 3 and 18 months. It is the localized form that degenerates. Lesions can be found on the face, head, and limbs. Secondary infections may occur. 
  • Treatment: Demodex is treated by shaving the affected regions and cleaning them with a bactericidal shampoo, administering antibiotics, and using Mitaban. Other treatments can also be provided, such as Milbemycine and Ivermectin. 

Cheyletiella (Skin mites)

  • Definition: Cheyletiella is an ectoparasite that feeds off of the blood and debris of its host. 
  • Hosts: Dogs, cats, rabbits, and humans are potential hosts. The mite in question can also survive on us, humans (zoonosis), and can occasionally cause small pimples and itchiness on the chest generally. 
  • Contamination: Contamination is through direct contact and the environment when an animal comes into contact with infested hair. 
  • Clinical signs: We can observe pruritis and dandruff, and the skin looks as if it is covered with whole wheat flour. 
  • Diagnosis: The diagnosis can be acquired in different ways: with a magnifying glass, scotch tape test, skin scraping, and fecal analysis. If we manage to see the mite, we have our answer; otherwise we can wait to see the response to treatment for the mites.
  • Treatment: The treatment must be administered to all dogs and cats affected in the home. We usually use, Revolution(R) at a dose of once a month for 2 to 3 months. It is sometimes recommended to treat the environment. 

Ear mites (Otacatiose)

  • Definition: They are parasites that live in the ear canal of dogs and cats. 
  • Transmission: Animals mainly contaminate themselves through direct contact, but the parasites can live up to 3 weeks in the environment. 
  • Clinical signs: There is a significant amount of secretions resembling coffee grounds in the ear. Pruritis might also be present. 
  • Treatment: The ear needs to be cleaned and a topical treatment (Otomax(R), Tresaderm(R) ou Surolan(R)) applied. We also use Revolution(R) at a rate of once a month for 2 consecutive months.